Caloocan City is divided into two geographically non-contiguous areas – the North and South Caloocan. Southern Caloocan City lies directly north of the City of Manila and is bounded by Malabon City and Valenzuela City to the northwest, Navotas to the west and Quezon City to the east. Northern Caloocan City is the northernmost territory of Metro Manila; it lies east of Valenzuela City, north of Quezon City, and south of San Jose del Monte City, of the province of Bulacan. It is one of the seventeen (17) cities and municipalities in the National Capital Region (NCR).
Caloocan has a total land area of 53.334 square kilometres or 5333.4 hectares. Northern Caloocan has a land area of 39.709 square kilometres (3970.9 hectares) while South Caloocan has a land area of 13.625 square kilometres (1362.5 hectares). Caloocan’s total land area constitutes 8.4 % of NCR’s total land area. It has the second largest land area in Metro Manila.
Caloocan City is a First Class, Highly Urbanized City (HUC) based on the data provided by the Department of Finance (DOF) as of June 30, 2010.
Caloocan City is the third most populous city in the country. For year 2010 it has a projected population of 1,474,040 with population density (projected) of 27,640 per square kilometres. Its annual population growth rate is 2.23%.
Caloocan has two (2) congressional districts. It is divided into 188 barangays. The city uses a hybrid system for its barangays - all barangays have their corresponding numbers but only a few - mostly in the northern part - have corresponding names.
Among all the cities in the Philippines, only Manila, Pasay City and Caloocan City implement the so called "Zone System". A zone is a group of barangays in a district. Although a zone is considered a subdivision in the local government units, the people do not elect a leader for the zone in a popular election similar to the normal barangay or local elections. The zoning system is merely for strategic purposes.
Caloocan City has 16 Zones. The biggest zone in Caloocan is Zone 15 located in District 1 (North Caloocan) directly west of the second biggest zone in Caloocan which is Zone 16. Barangay 176 (Bagong Silang) is the largest barangay in the country with a population of 221,874 people.
The city's most celebrated landmark is the monument of Katipunan Supremo Andres Bonifacio, which is located at the northern terminal point of the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) where it meets Rizal Avenue forming an area that is popularly called “Monumento area”. This structure is a fitting tribute to Andres Bonifacio and the Katipunan patriots. The patriotic fervor then sweeping the country, which inspired the national struggle for independence, was immortalized in stone in 1933 by the great Filipino sculptor and national artist, Guillermo Tolentino. The very location of this monument actually depicts the place of the first battle by Andres Bonifacio and the Katipunan with the Spanish colonial army on August 3, 1896.
The Main City Hall is located on A. Mabini Street in the southern part of the city, across the street from San Roque Parish Cathedral. There is also a City Hall that caters to the needs of the constituents in the Northern Caloocan (Bukid) area located on Zapote Street, Camarin.
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